PLNU Undergraduate Honors Projects

This collection includes projects completed by Point Loma Nazarene University undergraduate honors scholars. These projects are completed under the supervision of a faculty advisor or committee and cover a wide variety of disciplines.

2019-2020 Honors Projects

Big Data for Savings Groups: A Study and Application of Data Visualization

Maria Rose Bolt
Big Data for Savings Groups: A Study and Application of Data Visualization

This multifaceted study first analyzes the causes and significance of the rise of big data in recent decades. Secondly, the savings group development model is explained along with its advantages and limitations, and it is identified as a potential application of big data analysis.

This multifaceted study first analyzes the causes and significance of the rise of big data in recent decades. Secondly, the savings group development model is explained along with its advantages and limitations, and it is identified as a potential application of big data analysis. Finally, the study includes a summary of a data visualization project that was realized using real-world savings group data, as well as the practical lessons learned in the implementation process.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018597

Can we use Transfer Learning to Implement a Convolutional Neural Network to do Large Mammal Classification on an Edge Device

Noah Cole
Can we use Transfer Learning to Implement a Convolutional Neural Network to do Large Mammal Classification on an Edge Device

Conservation efforts of large mammal species in Costa Rica rely on extensive camera tracking networks to record these species’ presence, activity, and interactions. By using transfer learning on an edge device to retrain a Convolutional Neural Network the process of tracking and identifying these mammals will be streamlined. Transfer learning on edge devices was found to be effective in retraining and deploying CNN image classifiers.

Conservation efforts of large mammal species in Costa Rica rely on extensive camera tracking networks to record these species’ presence, activity, and interactions. By using transfer learning on an edge device to retrain a Convolutional Neural Network the process of tracking and identifying these mammals will be streamlined. Transfer learning on edge devices was found to be effective in retraining and deploying CNN image classifiers.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018652

Cancer Proliferation Mediated by Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs)

Bridget Fortin
Allison L. Hale
Cancer Proliferation Mediated by Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs)

Macrophages are a type of immune cell present in the tumor micro environment that can be polarized by the cancer cells to aid in the growth and proliferation of the tumor. The goal of this study was to decipher the communication between glioblastoma cells and their environment by determining the pathway by which macrophages are polarized toward the M2 (pro-tumor) phenotype.

Macrophages are a type of immune cell present in the tumor micro environment that can be polarized by the cancer cells to aid in the growth and proliferation of the tumor. The goal of this study was to decipher the communication between glioblastoma cells and their environment by determining the pathway by which macrophages are polarized toward the M2 (pro-tumor) phenotype. Once the pathway is determined, treatments can be developed that inhibit the pathway, which would subsequently halt the growth of the tumor.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018692

Characterizing a distributed pressure sensor built from off-the-shelf piezoresistive polymer

Timothy Weigman
Characterizing a distributed pressure sensor built from off-the-shelf piezoresistive polymer
Measuring the distribution of mechanical pressure across a surface is useful in a wide variety of applications, but traditional measurement tools are either very expensive or single-use. Here we characterize a 
exible, reusable sensor built from off-the-shelf materials that is simple and low-cost, but unsuited for high-precision work.
Measuring the distribution of mechanical pressure across a surface is useful in a wide variety of applications, but traditional measurement tools are either very expensive or single-use. Here we characterize a exible, reusable sensor built from off-the-shelf materials that is simple and low-cost, but unsuited for high-precision work.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018708

A Comprehensive Review of Maternal Mortality Rates in the United States and Other Developed Nations

Elizabeth Faith Brown
Elisa Joy Vale
A Comprehensive Review of Maternal Mortality Rates in the United States and Other Developed Nations

Maternal mortality rates are a reflection of the overall health and quality of healthcare within a country. While the majority of developed countries have seen a decrease in maternal mortality rates over the past few decades, the United States has seen an increase in rates.

Maternal mortality rates are a reflection of the overall health and quality of healthcare within a country. While the majority of developed countries have seen a decrease in maternal mortality rates over the past few decades, the United States has seen an increase in rates. This review intends to identify factors in four developed nations that contribute to their decreases in maternal mortality rates as well as factors within the United States that may contribute to a continuous rise in rates.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018622

The Compson Family Language Game: Despair, Depression, and Death in The Sound in the Fury Language

Andrew Manker
The Compson Family Language Game: Despair, Depression, and Death in The Sound in the Fury Language

In William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, language creates microcosms that isolate each Compson family member, especially the children.

In William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, language creates microcosms that isolate each Compson family member, especially the children.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018840

A Critique of Contemporary Worship Music: Virtual Community in the Time of COVID-19

Leeya Appleby
A Critique of Contemporary Worship Music: Virtual Community in the Time of COVID-19

This project explores the ways in which God is an on-going presence in changing times. Asking how the Church can best love those around it in the COVID-19 pandemic using the role of language as a means of extending love.

This project explores the ways in which God is an on-going presence in changing times. Asking how the Church can best love those around it in the COVID-19 pandemic using the role of language as a means of extending love.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018589

The Effect of Live Music as an Intervention on Antepartum Patients

Brooke Senne
The Effect of Live Music as an Intervention on Antepartum Patients

This project examines the effect of playing live, violin music at the bedside of high-risk pregnant patients staying in the Perinatal Special Care Unit at Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns. Before and after the music session, blood pressure, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured.

This project examines the effect of playing live, violin music at the bedside of high-risk pregnant patients staying in the Perinatal Special Care Unit at Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns. Before and after the music session, blood pressure, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured. Positive written feedback from each patient regarding their experience included themes of the music helping them to feel relaxed and connected with their baby. Patients also verbalized how the music was a memorable and special experience to have in the hospital.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018700

Effects of Pelvic Rotation, Trunk Rotation, Ground Reaction Force on Bat Speed in Collegiate Baseball Hitters

Avery Avina
Effects of Pelvic Rotation, Trunk Rotation, Ground Reaction Force on Bat Speed in Collegiate Baseball Hitters

Although much research exists on baseball pitching, there is limited research on baseball hitting to show what factors can best predict bat speed. Using 3D Motion Capture, this study shows how stance leg impulse (force x time) predicts pelvic velocity, and angular bat speed, trunk rotation (X factor), and stride length explain bat speed.

Although much research exists on baseball pitching, there is limited research on baseball hitting to show what factors can best predict bat speed. Using 3D Motion Capture, this study shows how stance leg impulse (force x time) predicts pelvic velocity, and angular bat speed, trunk rotation (X factor), and stride length explain bat speed.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018594

Effects of Strength-Based Development on Resilience in Undergraduate Nursing Students

Taylor Gregg
Alexa Smith
Effects of Strength-Based Development on Resilience in Undergraduate Nursing Students

This study focuses on the effects of strength-based interventions on the resilience of sophomore nursing majors at Point Loma Nazarene University. Main emerging themes include positive peer to peer interaction, stress reduction, and fighting burnout.

This study focuses on the effects of strength-based interventions on the resilience of sophomore nursing majors at Point Loma Nazarene University. Main emerging themes include positive peer to peer interaction, stress reduction, and fighting burnout.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018659

Effects of Time-Dependent Heat Sources On Neutron Star Crust Cooling

Austin R. Smith
Effects of Time-Dependent Heat Sources On Neutron Star Crust Cooling
Neutron star crust cooling can give insights to the interior composition of the stars. Using dStar and the neutron star cooling simulation code NSCool, a variable mass is accreted onto different neutron star models. Previous accretion simulations have commonly assumed a constant mass accretion over a long epoch; this research investigates the effects of different accreting mass accretion rate distributions and focuses on a periodic Gaussian distribution, with a ner time epoch.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018702

Every Drop Counts: Positive Reinforcement in Increasing Hand Hygiene

Nicole Tavai Tuitasi
Every Drop Counts: Positive Reinforcement in Increasing Hand Hygiene

Hand hygiene compliance has shown to be low in both the healthcare and public setting. This study evaluates the rates of hand hygiene compliance of a regular hand sanitizer dispenser to one with a positive reinforcement visual usage count. Each machine was individually observed for cafeteria visitor's hand hygiene usage or refusal.

Hand hygiene compliance has shown to be low in both the healthcare and public setting. This study evaluates the rates of hand hygiene compliance of a regular hand sanitizer dispenser to one with a positive reinforcement visual usage count. Each machine was individually observed for cafeteria visitor's hand hygiene usage or refusal. Observation found that 7.4% accepted hand sanitizer from the regular dispenser, while 16.0% accepted hand sanitizer from the positive reinforcement dispenser.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018704

Fate of Acrolein, an Agricultural Biocide, Overtime

Dakota Brady
Fate of Acrolein, an Agricultural Biocide, Overtime

Acrolein is an efficient agricultural herbicide within irrigation canal ditches and a biocide within oilfield water-flood systems. The fate of acrolein is typically attributed to evaporation, however, it is found that acrolein also dimerizes in water. This hetero-Diels-alder product is stable over an extended period of time, thus losing its original function as an effective biocide and herbicide. Various 1D/2D NMR and GC-EIMS techniques were used to elucidate the structure of said dimerization product, found to be 5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-carbaldehyde. 

Acrolein is an efficient agricultural herbicide within irrigation canal ditches and a biocide within oilfield water-flood systems. The fate of acrolein is typically attributed to evaporation, however, it is found that acrolein also dimerizes in water. This hetero-Diels-alder product is stable over an extended period of time, thus losing its original function as an effective biocide and herbicide. Various 1D/2D NMR and GC-EIMS techniques were used to elucidate the structure of said dimerization product, found to be 5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-carbaldehyde.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018787

The History of the Cycloid Curve

Natalee Chavez
The History of the Cycloid Curve
During the 17th century prominent mathematicians became fascinated with the cycloid curve. It was their favorite example to use in the development of their new ideas and theorems. They would use 
During the 17th century prominent mathematicians became fascinated with the cycloid curve. It was their favorite example to use in the development of their new ideas and theorems. They would use it to help them in their new discoveries because the unique properties aligned with the curve. Since it was used by most significant mathematicians of the 17th century, it is important to examine the history of it during this time period.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018650

New Objects in the American West

Ethan Chan
New Objects in the American West

This body of work is a catalogue of Western contemporary culture that presents itself
both minimally and vaguely. These convenient consumables directly reference television and soap opera clichés, Southwestern plastic culture, and instances of several intersections between globalism and Americana in what I hope presents itself with a certain context to offer a more thoughtful look at our social tendencies, stereotypes and aesthetic tastes.

This body of work is a catalogue of Western contemporary culture that presents itself
both minimally and vaguely. These convenient consumables directly reference television and soap opera clichés, Southwestern plastic culture, and instances of several intersections between globalism and Americana in what I hope presents itself with a certain context to offer a more thoughtful look at our social tendencies, stereotypes and aesthetic tastes.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018628

Plasmid-Mediated Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes within Biofilms

Madelaine Brown
Plasmid-Mediated Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes within Biofilms

The objective of this study was to determine transfer frequencies of multidrug resistance plasmids under different conjugation conditions: liquid cultures, batch biofilms, and drip-flow biofilms. Generalized linear modeling showed no significant conjugation efficiency difference at different exposure times; however, drip-flow biofilms showed a significantly greater efficiency than the other conditions.

The objective of this study was to determine transfer frequencies of multidrug resistance plasmids under different conjugation conditions: liquid cultures, batch biofilms, and drip-flow biofilms. Generalized linear modeling showed no significant conjugation efficiency difference at different exposure times; however, drip-flow biofilms showed a significantly greater efficiency than the other conditions.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018624

The Significance of Comprehensive Sex Education in Relation to Sexual Health at a Private Christian University

Samantha Fezzey
Sydney Anna Henderson
The Significance of Comprehensive Sex Education in Relation to Sexual Health at a Private Christian University

STIs are increasing in the U.S., particularly among college-age students. One potential factor is the amount of variance among sex education curriculum in the U.S. To combat knowledge gaps and increase awareness related to safe sexual activity among college students, a sex education seminar was offered at PLNU.

STIs are increasing in the U.S., particularly among college-age students. One potential factor is the amount of variance among sex education curriculum in the U.S. To combat knowledge gaps and increase awareness related to safe sexual activity among college students, a sex education seminar was offered at PLNU.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018655

Soil Fertility in an Acidic Andisol: An Analysis of Acidity Management Practices in Vara Blanca, Costa Rica

Dane Brizzolara
Soil Fertility in an Acidic Andisol: An Analysis of Acidity Management Practices in Vara Blanca, Costa Rica

Neotropical farmers on mountainous slopes face acidic soil that may produce stunted crops. The traditional method to ameliorate soil acidity is the application of agricultural lime. However, some farmers use organic material inputs including compost, vermicompost, and manure.

Neotropical farmers on mountainous slopes face acidic soil that may produce stunted crops. The traditional method to ameliorate soil acidity is the application of agricultural lime. However, some farmers use organic material inputs including compost, vermicompost, and manure. My goal was to survey the small-scale farmers of Vara Blanca, Costa Rica on the slopes of Poás Volcano to compare the productivity and sustainability of traditional liming versus intensive organic material strategies.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018617

The State of the Art World: An Autoethnographic Review of Women Artist Representation

Madyson Rose Carpenter
The State of the Art World: An Autoethnographic Review of Women Artist Representation

This essay focuses on my experience as an emerging woman artist, and examines the culture of inequality that prevails in the art industry today. Using the method of autoethnography, I aim to bring qualitative and quantitative data together to illustrate a more full account of women’s representation in art.

This essay focuses on my experience as an emerging woman artist, and examines the culture of inequality that prevails in the art industry today. Using the method of autoethnography, I aim to bring qualitative and quantitative data together to illustrate a more full account of women’s representation in art.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018626

A Study in Securing the Internet of Things

Joseph Tuttobene
A Study in Securing the Internet of Things

Current Internet of Things (IoT) cybersecurity threats were investigated using current literature and direct examination of IoT devices including the 3D printer control software OctoPrint, the autonomous vehicle middleware MOOS-IvP, and a common consumer smart lightbulb. This research found that most IoT devices transmit in plaintext and that software controls alone are insufficient in control systems applications. Recommended best practices for organizations include segregating IoT devices on a network, using non-default credentials, and keeping devices up to date.

Current Internet of Things (IoT) cybersecurity threats were investigated using current literature and direct examination of IoT devices including the 3D printer control software OctoPrint, the autonomous vehicle middleware MOOS-IvP, and a common consumer smart lightbulb. This research found that most IoT devices transmit in plaintext and that software controls alone are insufficient in control systems applications. Recommended best practices for organizations include segregating IoT devices on a network, using non-default credentials, and keeping devices up to date.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018706

Systematic Review: Investigating Factors associated with Female Active Duty Service Members with an Eating Disorder and Concurrent Diagnoses of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

Madeleine F. Gillcrist
Systematic Review: Investigating Factors associated with Female Active Duty Service Members with an Eating Disorder and Concurre
Many individual factors contribute to the development of mental health disorders and feeding and eating disorders (FEDs) (Martin et al, 2019). FEDs may have an affect on the mental and physical health of those impacted. In raw data from the Psychological Health Center of Excellence (PHCOE), the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in female active duty service members (ADSMs) who also meet the criteria for FEDs was significantly higher than the general ADSM population, 36% and 45% respectively (PHCOE, 2019).
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018694

Toward the Synthesis of Unprecedented Transition-Metal Nitride Molecules

Kourtney Herring
Toward the Synthesis of Unprecedented Transition-Metal Nitride Molecules

Transition metal nitride clusters are of interest because of their novel structures and potential magnetic and electronic properties. In our search for synthetic routes to these clusters, we have discovered adducts with the formula s[Cl3Mn·N(SnMe3)3]1− and (Pr4N)4[Fe14N8(NSnMe3)4Cl12]. The synthesis and characterization of different salts of these adducts will be presented.

Transition metal nitride clusters are of interest because of their novel structures and potential magnetic and electronic properties. In our search for synthetic routes to these clusters, we have discovered adducts with the formula s[Cl3Mn·N(SnMe3)3]1− and (Pr4N)4[Fe14N8(NSnMe3)4Cl12]. The synthesis and characterization of different salts of these adducts will be presented.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018662

A Trial-And-Error Study on Trend Analytics for The DIY Musician Coldplay, Pink Floyd, Queen, Vampire Weekend, and Radiohead

Bruna Balduino
A Trial-And-Error Study on Trend Analytics for The DIY Musician Coldplay, Pink Floyd, Queen, Vampire Weekend, and Radiohead

Although many DIY musicians believe that releasing songs based around the broad subject of love will effectively reach their target demographic, we believe that writing culturally relevant songs aimed at the life struggles of a specific age group will generate a larger amount of streams. To prove this, we wrote and produced an album split into two themes: half were love songs, and the other half were about our experiences as Gen Z kids.

Although many DIY musicians believe that releasing songs based around the broad subject of love will effectively reach their target demographic, we believe that writing culturally relevant songs aimed at the life struggles of a specific age group will generate a larger amount of streams. To prove this, we wrote and produced an album split into two themes: half were love songs, and the other half were about our experiences as Gen Z kids. Then, we tracked our social media and streaming platform analytics to prove our results, so that we could write our next album for optimal success.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018689

A Two-Colombia Model: How the “Hidden Colombia” Emerges with Qualitative Analysis

Hannah Teresa Kurowski
A Two-Colombia Model: How the “Hidden Colombia” Emerges with Qualitative Analysis

At first glance, state stability seems to be on the rise in Colombia; however, closer examination gives rise to a two-Colombia model. The “Visible Colombia” is represented by the currently available statistical data, while the “Hidden Colombia,” lost in the statistical aggregation, emerges through qualitative analysis.

At first glance, state stability seems to be on the rise in Colombia; however, closer examination gives rise to a two-Colombia model. The “Visible Colombia” is represented by the currently available statistical data, while the “Hidden Colombia,” lost in the statistical aggregation, emerges through qualitative analysis.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018806

Visualizing the Degradation of pRb by the High-Risk HPV Protein E7

Connor A. Lowey
Andrew C. Greer
Visualizing the Degradation of pRb by the High-Risk HPV Protein E7

The oncoprotein E7 coded for by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to degrade the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Transient transfections of a plasmid coding for the E7 protein were not effective at visualizing degradation of pRb. Although transient transfection would be efficient in visualizing pRb degradation, the lack of success makes more reliable methods, such as the use of retroviruses, necessary.

The oncoprotein E7 coded for by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to degrade the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Transient transfections of a plasmid coding for the E7 protein were not effective at visualizing degradation of pRb. Although transient transfection would be efficient in visualizing pRb degradation, the lack of success makes more reliable methods, such as the use of retroviruses, necessary.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018761

The Wear Justice Movement: An Autoethnographic Study

Elaine Giles
The Wear Justice Movement: An Autoethnographic Study

Wear Justice is a social movement that exists to rethink consumerism through community. At its beginning in 2018, Wear Justice drew over a thousand attendees at Point Loma Nazarene University and has continued growing and expanding. With education and activism at its core, Wear Justice aims to start critical conversations amongst students about solutions to inequality in the fashion industry through hands-on community-based events.

Wear Justice is a social movement that exists to rethink consumerism through community. At its beginning in 2018, Wear Justice drew over a thousand attendees at Point Loma Nazarene University and has continued growing and expanding. With education and activism at its core, Wear Justice aims to start critical conversations amongst students about solutions to inequality in the fashion industry through hands-on community-based events.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018758

2018-2019 Honors Projects

Bioassay-Guided Investigation Of Inhibitors Of Pierce’s Disease And Citrus Greening Disease

Connor Brandenburg
Bioassay-Guided Investigation Of Inhibitors Of Pierce’s Disease And Citrus Greening Disease
Pierce’s Disease, threatening grapevines in California, and Citrus Greening Disease, plaguing commercial citrus trees in Florida, are caused by bacterial plant pathogens. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) are the respective agents of these destructive diseases. Both reside in the plant vascular system, leading to dwarfed plants with dehydrated fruits that are ultimately worthless for the production of wine, juice, and oil, among other goods. If left untreated, these pathogens ultimately kill their host plants.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015147

Bioassay-guided Isolation of a Natural Product Inhibitor of Epicoccum Nigrum to Combat Citrus Greening Disease

Jennifer Cordoza
Bioassay-guided Isolation of a Natural Product Inhibitor of Epicoccum Nigrum to Combat Citrus Greening Disease
Huanglongbing disease (HLB), commonly known as citrus greening disease, is a bacterial infection that impacts citrus trees across the United States. Citrus greening is caused by Candidatus
Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a bacterium that blocks sugar flow through the phloem, leading to unprofitable harvests. In this study, we used bioassay-guided isolation and organic structure
elucidation to identify an inhibitor produced by Epicoccum nigrum, an endophytic fungus isolated from citrus trees residing in infected groves.
Huanglongbing disease (HLB), commonly known as citrus greening disease, is a bacterial infection that impacts citrus trees across the United States. Citrus greening is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a bacterium that blocks sugar flow through the phloem, leading to unprofitable harvests. In this study, we used bioassay-guided isolation and organic structure elucidation to identify an inhibitor produced by Epicoccum nigrum, an endophytic fungus isolated from citrus trees residing in infected groves.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015153

Cerebrovascular Crises Leading to Major Neurological Disabilities and Rehabilitation Implications for the Occupational Therapist

Megan Butterweck
Cerebrovascular Crises Leading to Major Neurological Disabilities and Rehabilitation Implications for the Occupational Therapist

A Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) is the most common label ascribed to people who have experienced strokes. Ischemic Stroke, Hemorrhagic Stroke, and Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA) are the most common causes for neurological disability that impairs quality of life. CVA’s can be the result of a variety of morbidities, including thrombotic occlusions, atherosclerotic calcification, ruptured aneurysms, abnormal blood pressure, and irregular blood flow, associated with irregular dynamics.

A Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) is the most common label ascribed to people who have experienced strokes. Ischemic Stroke, Hemorrhagic Stroke, and Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA) are the most common causes for neurological disability that impairs quality of life. CVA’s can be the result of a variety of morbidities, including thrombotic occlusions, atherosclerotic calcification, ruptured aneurysms, abnormal blood pressure, and irregular blood flow, associated with irregular dynamics.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015151

Computational Analysis of the Relationships Between Antibiotic Resistance and Plasmid Backbone Genes

Mariele Lensink
Computational Analysis of the Relationships Between Antibiotic Resistance and Plasmid Backbone Genes
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming one of the leading public health threats globally. Although, the presence of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance has been both extensively researched and well-documented, the relationships between antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and plasmid backbone structure have not. Understanding these relationships would provide important insight into the history of how bacterial plasmids have developed and the potential of plasmid backbones to acquire ARGs.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015189

Concurrent Validity And Reliability of Mobile Applications In Measuring Vertical Jump Performance

Madelyn Dow
Concurrent Validity And Reliability of Mobile Applications In Measuring Vertical Jump Performance

The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity and intraclass reliability of two mobile apps designed to measure countermovement jump (CMJ) height. The concurrent validity and reliability of two mobile applications (MyJump2 and What'smyvertical) designed to measure vertical jump heights were analyzed using a force platform and 3D motion analysis as criterion methods.

The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity and intraclass reliability of two mobile apps designed to measure countermovement jump (CMJ) height. The concurrent validity and reliability of two mobile applications (MyJump2 and What'smyvertical) designed to measure vertical jump heights were analyzed using a force platform and 3D motion analysis as criterion methods.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015170

The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Sedentary Adults

Jacob Barragan
The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Sedent

The purpose of the investigation was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus the effects of high-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in sedentary adults. We hypothesized that increases in VO2max after both interventions would not significantly differ between groups. 24 participants (27.1 ± 8.4 yr, VO2max = 27.7 ± 6.7 ml*kg-1*min-1) completed 4 wk (3 sessions/wk) of MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax).

The purpose of the investigation was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus the effects of high-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in sedentary adults. We hypothesized that increases in VO2max after both interventions would not significantly differ between groups. 24 participants (27.1 ± 8.4 yr, VO2max = 27.7 ± 6.7 ml*kg-1*min-1) completed 4 wk (3 sessions/wk) of MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax).
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015145

Evaluation of the Braden Scale In Regards to the Efficacy of Predicting Skin Breakdown Related to Medical Devices

Lauren Struffenegger
Emma Valeri
Evaluation of the Braden Scale In Regards to the Efficacy of Predicting Skin Breakdown Related to Medical Devices
The literature synthesis demonstrates the Braden Skin Assessment Tool potentially does not adequately assess for patient risk of developing pressure injuries. Recommendation to improve assessment includes: improved communication, care planning, quality monitoring, and facilitated documentation. Education on device related pressure injury assessment recommended. In healthcare settings there are a multitude of device related pressure injuries that often have multiple points of intervention.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015211

Evidence of Energetic Charged Particle Emission During Electrochemical Pd/D Co-deposition

Micah Karahadian
Evidence of Energetic Charged Particle Emission During Electrochemical Pd/D Co-deposition
An integrative solid-state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was used to measure energetic charged particles formed during an electrochemical co-deposition of Pd/D. Tracks of alpha particles ranging in energy from 1.0 to 7.5  0.5 MeV were measured. Tracks of energetic protons were observed. Evidence of triple alpha tracks appearing to originate from the same point lead to possible evidence of secondary reactions between energetic neutrons and carbon within the detector.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015183

An Examination of the Social, Political, and Economic Experiences of the Latinx LGBTQ Population in Southern California

Elina Mendoza
An Examination of the Social, Political, and Economic Experiences of the Latinx LGBTQ Population in Southern California

Latinx LGBTQ communities within the United States are largely underrepresented socially, politically, and economically. This particular group’s overlap of race/ethnicity and sexual identity/orientation presents unique challenges for those who identify with this group. This paper closely examines the lived experience of Latinx LGBTQ members in Southern California.

Latinx LGBTQ communities within the United States are largely underrepresented socially, politically, and economically. This particular group’s overlap of race/ethnicity and sexual identity/orientation presents unique challenges for those who identify with this group. This paper closely examines the lived experience of Latinx LGBTQ members in Southern California.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015202

The Experience of Childbirth at a Midwife-Run Birth Center

Samantha Archer
The Experience of Childbirth at a Midwife-Run Birth Center

There are several factors that influence a woman’s birth experience. A large portion of these factors is the preparation that she takes for the event of labor. This study focuses on both the motivation for and experience of labor at a midwife-run birth center. The data collected provides more information to better inform the field of labor and delivery on this population’s experience. The findings can be applied both within the hospital and outside of the hospital setting.

There are several factors that influence a woman’s birth experience. A large portion of these factors is the preparation that she takes for the event of labor. This study focuses on both the motivation for and experience of labor at a midwife-run birth center. The data collected provides more information to better inform the field of labor and delivery on this population’s experience. The findings can be applied both within the hospital and outside of the hospital setting.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015143

Factors Affecting the Quality of Life Postpartum: A Literature Update

Reena Torres
Factors Affecting the Quality of Life Postpartum: A Literature Update
Unmet motherly expectations in the postpartum period may lead to psychological issues such as postpartum depression and anxiety. This current 2019 literature review adds to where Dr. Mary Adams’ original research study Expectations and Quality of Life During the Antepartum and Postpartum Period left off in 2016. Dr. Adams’ (2016) quantitative research study found that there is a gap in knowledge concerning the relationship between expectations, maternal attitudes, mood, and the quality of life. The study intends to measure these variables in the antepartum and postpartum periods.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015217

Helping Babies Breathe: Neonatal Resuscitative Teaching to Midwives in Ghana, West Africa

Hannah Matthews
Olivia Meyers
Helping Babies Breathe: Neonatal Resuscitative Teaching to Midwives in Ghana, West Africa
The American Academy of Pediatrics designed Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), an educational program for low-resource areas. This project implemented a modified HBB program to teach neonatal resuscitation skills to four midwives in rural Ghana. The midwives averaged pre-test scores of (a) 39.2%, (b) 37.5% and post test scores of (a) 71.4%, (b) 83.7%. This train-the-trainer framework has resulted in one midwife continuing the teaching to hospitals in the region.
 
The American Academy of Pediatrics designed Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), an educational program for low-resource areas. This project implemented a modified HBB program to teach neonatal resuscitation skills to four midwives in rural Ghana. The midwives averaged pre-test scores of (a) 39.2%, (b) 37.5% and post test scores of (a) 71.4%, (b) 83.7%. This train-the-trainer framework has resulted in one midwife continuing the teaching to hospitals in the region.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015200

Homomorphic Encryption

Bryan Tapley
Homomorphic Encryption
A homomorphic encryption scheme built on polynomial rings is studied. The construction of irreducible polynomials in a given field is considered and implemented. Isomorphisms between two fields are found, and the method is evaluated. The scheme is ultimately implemented in SageMath, which is largely built on Python, and this is demonstrated.
A homomorphic encryption scheme built on polynomial rings is studied. The construction of irreducible polynomials in a given field is considered and implemented. Isomorphisms between two fields are found, and the method is evaluated. The scheme is ultimately implemented in SageMath, which is largely built on Python, and this is demonstrated.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015213

In Vitro Assembly of Bacteriophage Lambda Procapsid to Enable Payload Encapsulation For Targeted Drug Delivery

Rachel Culver
Ashley Julio
In Vitro Assembly of  Bacteriophage Lambda Procapsid to Enable Payload Encapsulation For Targeted Drug Delivery
The ability to structurally engineer viral nanoparticles makes them a useful platform for targeted drug delivery. The procapsid of bacteriophage lambda is one such structure. This hollow icosahedral structure can be made from multiple copies of three major capsid proteins: gpE (structural), gpNu3 (scaffolding), and gpD (stabilizing), and is amenable to payload encapsulation to allow transportation and delivery of therapeutics.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015164

Kekeli Women: The Impact of Being A Community Health Promoter in Ghana, West Africa

Kathrin Hoertig
 Kekeli Women: The Impact of Being A Community Health Promoter in Ghana, West Africa

The Kekeli Project seeks to improve the day to day health of individuals in Akatsi, Ghana (West Africa) by empowering lay women to serve as health promoters within their own villages and communities. These women volunteer to provide basic health education, blood pressure screening, wound care, and safe delivery assistance. Point Loma Nazarene University has been working with this group through a summer study abroad program since 2015. Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of lay health promoters on the health of their communities.

The Kekeli Project seeks to improve the day to day health of individuals in Akatsi, Ghana (West Africa) by empowering lay women to serve as health promoters within their own villages and communities. These women volunteer to provide basic health education, blood pressure screening, wound care, and safe delivery assistance. Point Loma Nazarene University has been working with this group through a summer study abroad program since 2015. Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of lay health promoters on the health of their communities.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015179

Kripkenstein: The Patriarchy Is a Language Game

Emilie Anderson
Kripkenstein: The Patriarchy Is a Language Game
This paper will dedicate itself to understanding the way that language functions in relation to the human condition. Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations and Saul Kripke’s Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language will serve as the structure for this paper so that I may develop a sustained conversation about Wittgenstein’s language games, the nature of rule following within those games, and
This paper will dedicate itself to understanding the way that language functions in relation to the human condition. Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations and Saul Kripke’s Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language will serve as the structure for this paper so that I may develop a sustained conversation about Wittgenstein’s language games, the nature of rule following within those games, and what this means for contemporary justice issues. In the ensuing sections, I will outline the logic at work in Wittgenstein’s language games and present the skeptic’s paradox for these rules.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015135

Navigating Faith in Criminal Justice

Sharoll Damron
Navigating Faith in Criminal Justice

The criminal justice system is failing and incarceration rates are rising as a result of punitive practices. The law will be upheld with morality, humane discipline, and restorative practices by the hands of those who are informed by their faith and who want to make a difference within the criminal justice system. In reviewing the qualitative literature, I have identified how the criminal justice system is failing, how it has distanced itself from being the just system it was intended to be, and how there is a need to change it.

The criminal justice system is failing and incarceration rates are rising as a result of punitive practices. The law will be upheld with morality, humane discipline, and restorative practices by the hands of those who are informed by their faith and who want to make a difference within the criminal justice system. In reviewing the qualitative literature, I have identified how the criminal justice system is failing, how it has distanced itself from being the just system it was intended to be, and how there is a need to change it.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015166

Navigating Macrophage Polarization

Audrianna Alonso
Navigating Macrophage Polarization
Macrophages are able to polarize from a basal, naïve state to an M1 or M2 phenotype. M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages are characterized by recognizing and eliminating abnormal cells, while M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages are characterized by tissue repair and healing. Polarization toward these phenotypes is induced by the cellular release of specific cytokines. In a tumorigenic environment, cancer cells manipulate the polarization of macrophages by directly releasing cytokines to stop the M1 attack response, and instead induce the M2 phenotype.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015133

Neuronal Pyrophosphatase Catalyzed Entanglement of Phosphate Ions in Posner Molecules

Andy Stokely
Neuronal Pyrophosphatase Catalyzed Entanglement of Phosphate Ions in Posner Molecules
A recently developed quantum mechanical model of cognition theorizes that neuronal signaling is significantly influenced by entangled Posner molecules (Ca9(PO4)6) in the brain. According to this model, entangled Posner molecules form upon the inorganic pyrophosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of singlet pyrophosphate, which produces two entangled phosphates. These entangled phosphates then coordinate with surrounding Ca2+ and other entangled phosphate molecules to form the S6 symmetric Posner molecule, which is presumed to serve as a qubit for neuronal signaling.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015208

Novel vancomycin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance plasmids from a set of multi-drug-resistant Enterococcus isolated from biofilm grown in wastewater

Joseph Bravo
Novel vancomycin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance plasmids from a set of multi-drug-resistant Enterococcus i
Antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria is a serious global health threat. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are especially concerning since they are susceptible to few if any antibiotics, and can serve as a reservoir for mobile genetic elements containing diverse resistance genes that could potentially be transmitted to other Gram-positive bacteria. The plasmids that confer resistance in Gram-positive bacteria, however, are poorly understood. In this project, a set of eight VRE strain was isolated from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant in San Diego County.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015149

Pertinent Health Needs and Values in City Heights, San Diego and How They Inform a Local Health Fair

Hope Mackliff
Alyssa Waggoner
Pertinent Health Needs and Values in City Heights, San Diego and How They Inform a Local Health Fair
A qualitative study was performed to identify the pertinent health needs and values in City Heights, San Diego and how they would inform a local health fair. Currently, Point Loma Nazarene University sponsors a Festival of Health that takes place in this area. This article discusses the health values and needs identified by five participants. Five interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded into different categories. Basic demographics were collected on participants. From these interviews five key lessons were brought forward.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015195

Physical Health, Nutrition Knowledge, Food Consumption, and Quality of Life in Female Collegiate Runners

Megan Miller
Physical Health, Nutrition Knowledge, Food Consumption, and Quality of Life in Female Collegiate Runners
Collegiate athletes undergo a pre-participation examination, but it often does not analyze dietary habits, nutrition knowledge, or quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors in female collegiate runners. Twenty-eight track and field and cross country runners from a Division II University completed this study. Blood pressure, body composition, and fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015204

Pornography’s Effect on the Circulation of Rape Culture

Megan Kleber
Pornography’s Effect on the Circulation of Rape Culture

This study assesses the effects of pornography on an individual’s acceptance level of rape myths. Rape myths are a society’s set of attitudes and beliefs in regards to sexual assault and rape which circulate rape culture. Rape culture can be associated with certain ideas that place blame on victims, make excuses for the actions of a perpetrator or obscure the difference between consensual sex and rape. Research has revealed that higher exposure levels to pornography does in fact increase an individual's acceptance of rape myths.

This study assesses the effects of pornography on an individual’s acceptance level of rape myths. Rape myths are a society’s set of attitudes and beliefs in regards to sexual assault and rape which circulate rape culture. Rape culture can be associated with certain ideas that place blame on victims, make excuses for the actions of a perpetrator or obscure the difference between consensual sex and rape. Research has revealed that higher exposure levels to pornography does in fact increase an individual's acceptance of rape myths.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015185

Predator-prey relationships for coyote (Canis latrans), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and puma (Puma concolor) in Costa Rican ecosystems

Amy Eppert
 Predator-prey relationships for coyote (Canis latrans), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and puma (Puma concolor) in Costa Rican ec

Evaluating predatory-prey relationships is critical for understanding the dynamics of ecosystems and implementing effective conservation efforts. I investigated whether Neotropical mammalian predators select prey based on relative abundance alone, on a subset of known prey species regardless of abundance, or on a combination of both. Data collected from camera traps located in seven sites in Costa Rica were used to calculate coefficients of overlapping (∆) to assess the similarity of activity patterns between predators and their prey.

Evaluating predatory-prey relationships is critical for understanding the dynamics of ecosystems and implementing effective conservation efforts. I investigated whether Neotropical mammalian predators select prey based on relative abundance alone, on a subset of known prey species regardless of abundance, or on a combination of both. Data collected from camera traps located in seven sites in Costa Rica were used to calculate coefficients of overlapping (∆) to assess the similarity of activity patterns between predators and their prey.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015175

The Role of the Microbiome in Human Health

Verushqa Andrade
The human microbiota is a thriving ecosystem that has remained a great mystery, as we have yet to develop a complete understanding of its complex nature and capabilities. Nonetheless, numerous studies have demonstrated its significant role in an individual’s physical and mental health. Overall, a high diversity of endosymbiotic gut microbiota has been shown to be a key determinant of host health due to its molecular interactions with bodily systems, including the immune and nervous systems.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015137

The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Molecules on regulation of T cell response to Zika virus

Becca Salgado
The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Molecules on regulation of T cell response to Zika virus

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family and as of February 2016 has been declared a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Understanding the T cell response to ZIKV is critical in making steps towards developing vaccines and antiviral therapies. This project investigated the effect of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members on T cell activation during a primary ZIKV infection. The T cell response was most aptly seen in wild-type C57BL/6J mice treated with an anti-Ifnar1 blocking antibody one day prior to infection.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family and as of February 2016 has been declared a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Understanding the T cell response to ZIKV is critical in making steps towards developing vaccines and antiviral therapies. This project investigated the effect of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members on T cell activation during a primary ZIKV infection. The T cell response was most aptly seen in wild-type C57BL/6J mice treated with an anti-Ifnar1 blocking antibody one day prior to infection.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015206

Student Evaluations of Faculty Generosity and Course Quality

Francesca De Francisco
Student Evaluations of Faculty Generosity and Course Quality
Recent research has suggested that student evaluations of courses and professors are predicted by a variety of factors, ranging from rapport (Wilson, Ryan, & Pugh, 2010) to nonverbal behavior (Ambady, & Rosenthal, 1993). However, research has yet to examine how such evaluations are predicted by professors’ strivings and philosophy of student-professor interactions.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015168

Studies at Hannibal Bank, Panama: A Study of Evolutionary History of Mollusks and Developing a Program to Review Dive Track Data

Sebastian Elsenbroek
Studies at Hannibal Bank, Panama: A Study of Evolutionary History of Mollusks and Developing a Program to Review Dive Track Data
This study focuses on the phylum Mollusca from Hannibal Bank in Panama. Through DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the biodiversity and evolutionary history of mollusks were evaluated. The results of this study were found to support molluscan relationships reported in previous studies. Seventeen distinct species were collected. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood analyses revealed that the class Polyplacophora was basal to the sister clades Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Gastropoda was also found to have two distinct clades in both analyses: Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015173

A Study of Pencil Urchin Population Genetics at Hannibal Bank

Lee Hannah
A Study of Pencil Urchin Population Genetics at Hannibal Bank

Hannibal Bank is a seamount-like feature known for its high productivity and biodiversity that is located in an UNESCO World Heritage Site off the Pacific coast of Panama. The biodiversity and biogeography of two species of pencil urchins at Hannibal Bank were studied using genetic analysis and geographical imaging systems. DNA barcoding of the COI mitochondrial gene identified gene sequences for 80 samples of two species of pencil urchins (Genus Hesperocidaris).

Hannibal Bank is a seamount-like feature known for its high productivity and biodiversity that is located in an UNESCO World Heritage Site off the Pacific coast of Panama. The biodiversity and biogeography of two species of pencil urchins at Hannibal Bank were studied using genetic analysis and geographical imaging systems. DNA barcoding of the COI mitochondrial gene identified gene sequences for 80 samples of two species of pencil urchins (Genus Hesperocidaris).
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015187

Survivor-Informed Recommendations for Health Care Professionals on How to Better Treat Victims of Sex Trafficking

Mays Makenna
Survivor-Informed Recommendations for Health Care Professionals on How to Better Treat Victims of Sex Trafficking
Human trafficking is deemed by many as a worldwide epidemic that is affecting millions of people of all races, genders and social statuses. This research focuses directly on sex trafficking and how the victims of the commercial sex trade perceive their lives to intersect with the healthcare system. Healthcare professionals are at a unique vantage point because they are often one of the only direct contacts from the outside world with victims of sex trafficking.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015197

Torus Knots

Moyra Dyer
Torus Knots
This is a self-contained paper assuming no background knowledge of knot theory. A knot is a closed curve in three-dimensional space that does not intersect itself anywhere. A (double) crossing is where two strands of the knot meet; a triple crossing is where three strands of the knot meet. In this paper, a specic family of knots, called torus knots, is studied. This paper explores different properties of knots and how they are realized in torus knots. The relationship between the number of double crossings and triple crossings is investigated for a specic type of torus knot.
This is a self-contained paper assuming no background knowledge of knot theory. A knot is a closed curve in three-dimensional space that does not intersect itself anywhere. A (double) crossing is where two strands of the knot meet; a triple crossing is where three strands of the knot meet. In this paper, a speci c family of knots, called torus knots, is studied. This paper explores different properties of knots and how they are realized in torus knots. The relationship between the number of double crossings and triple crossings is investigated for a speci c type of torus knot.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015222

A Web-Based Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Ophthalmic Pathologies

Carlee Taylor
A Web-Based Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Ophthalmic Pathologies

Chronic ophthalmic pathologies are a prevalent cause of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in the world. There are an estimated 1.02 million people who are blind, 3.22 million people with vision impairment, and 8.2 million people living with correctable vision impairment. 1 Glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, cancers, and diabetic retinopathy are the prominent pathologies among the many that can cause vision impairment or vision loss.

Chronic ophthalmic pathologies are a prevalent cause of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in the world. There are an estimated 1.02 million people who are blind, 3.22 million people with vision impairment, and 8.2 million people living with correctable vision impairment. 1 Glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, cancers, and diabetic retinopathy are the prominent pathologies among the many that can cause vision impairment or vision loss.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015215

What People Volunteer?: A Look Into How Race, Gender, Religion and Socioeconomic Status Effect Prosociality in America

Michael Gracia
What People Volunteer?: A Look Into How Race, Gender, Religion and Socioeconomic Status Effect Prosociality in America
The purpose of the study was to investigate how one’s race, religious background, socioeconomic class, and gender affect how likely one is to volunteer. In this project, prosociality is defined as how often someone has volunteered within the past year. Previous literature shows little relationship between prosocial behavior and gender or race. With regard to socioeconomic class, results are mixed and vary depending on the economic system in the country the studies are performed in; i.e. socialist, capitalist, etc.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015177

Which Factors Cause People to Use Illicit Drugs?

Mallory Huston
Which Factors Cause People to Use Illicit Drugs?

Illicit drug use and its reasons are the areas that many sociologists have not researched thoroughly. The importance of impulsivity in explaining the reason for illegal drug use is dependent on societal constructs like gender, race, age, and income according to the available literature. Assessing illicit drug use is not complete until research examines the strain theory as well as labeling theory. According to the principle of strain theory, social pressure areas such as insufficient income or inadequate education and peer influence drive the members of society to engage in crime.

Illicit drug use and its reasons are the areas that many sociologists have not researched thoroughly. The importance of impulsivity in explaining the reason for illegal drug use is dependent on societal constructs like gender, race, age, and income according to the available literature. Assessing illicit drug use is not complete until research examines the strain theory as well as labeling theory. According to the principle of strain theory, social pressure areas such as insufficient income or inadequate education and peer influence drive the members of society to engage in crime.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015181

2017-2018 Honors Projects

Affecting the Eating Habits of College Students: Understanding Eating Patterns and Influencing Factors to Create Effective Dietary Interventions

Kaitlyn Offhaus
Affecting the Eating Habits of College Students: Understanding Eating Patterns and Influencing Factors to Create Effective Dieta

Download the PDF version of the honors project.

A greater understanding of the influencing factors and eating habits of college students is essential in creating effective interventions. In 2015 Point Loma Nazarene University received a grant from the USDA to survey students' health. PLNU received the grant to participate in this larger study as an intervention school. Thus throughout the year we performed four different interventions, each focusing on a slightly different area of health. The intervention specific to this research project dealt with My Plate and portion control. This study looks at the results of that survey.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014936

Creating a Positive Stigma for Mental Illness: Christian and Psychological Perspectives on Suffering

Myrrhiah Perkins
Creating a Positive Stigma for Mental Illness: Christian and Psychological Perspectives on Suffering

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This study aims to frame mental illness as a form of suffering in order to propose a healthy Christian response. This framework allows an informative dialogue between the psychological and Christian perspectives on suffering. The study begins by explaining why mental illness is a form of suffering by discussing the hereditary nature and chemical disposition of the psychopathology and by exploring the history and impact of stigma. Then, a psychological perspective on suffering will be explored to demonstrate how suffering is integral in character formation.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014938

Exercise as Medicine in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease: Survey Assessment of Non-Contact Boxing Participants with Supportive Brain Anatomy Analysis

Mychal Aloise
Exercise as Medicine in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease: Survey Assessment of Non-Contact Boxing Participants with Supporti

Download the PDF version of the honors project.

This study was intended to quantify the benefits group exercise therapy has on the motor functions and psychological aspects of a person living with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the neuromuscular structures effecting PD. This research was necessary to assess the efficacy of group pugilistic exercise for PD patients in different disease stages.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014913

A Family of Error Correcting Codes

Ashleigh Meyers
A Family of Error Correcting Codes
Error correcting codes (ECC) protect the integrity of a message by detecting and correcting errors that occur in digital communication channels. Cyclic codes are examples of ECC of fixed length n. Cyclic codes of length n are constructed by factoring the polynomial xn+1. In this paper we construct another family of codes by factoring the polynomial xn+xn−1+1. We give the generating and check matrices of these codes and their dimension.
Error correcting codes (ECC) protect the integrity of a message by detecting and correcting errors that occur in digital communication channels. Cyclic codes are examples of ECC of fixed length n. Cyclic codes of length n are constructed by factoring the polynomial xn+1. In this paper we construct another family of codes by factoring the polynomial xn+xn−1+1. We give the generating and check matrices of these codes and their dimension.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018584

Monitoring NCAA Division II Female Runners with Noninvasive Measures for Overtraining Syndrome

Morgan Brandt
Monitoring NCAA Division II Female Runners with Noninvasive Measures for Overtraining Syndrome

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Overtraining is directly linked to the imbalance in athletics between recovery and stress. Both overreaching and overtraining cause a variety of symptoms such as psychological, hormonal, physical, and physiological, yet many measures to test for overtraining syndrome are overly invasive like hormone testing. There has yet to be a definitive measure used to diagnose overtraining syndrome in contrast to nonfunctional overreaching. Diagnosing overreaching in order to prevent the progression into long-term overtraining is the ultimate goal as a sports medicine team.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014915

A Novel Tool for the Identification of Plasmid Backbone Gene Labels

Zac Lindsey
A Novel Tool for the Identification of Plasmid Backbone Gene Labels

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Plasmids carry antibiotic resistance genes which have a devastating impact on health and medicine. The plasmid backbone genes are also critical in understanding the effect plasmids have on a genome. NCBI stores plasmid backbone gene information in the nucleotide database, but the product names are often redundant, ambiguous, or incorrect. Incorrect naming makes assessment of the characteristics of the plasmid difficult. Untangling the mess of incorrect names is essential to the genomic analysis of plasmids.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014934

Optimization of a FRET Assay for Evaluating the Biological Activity of Anthrax Lethal Factor Inhibitors

Seth Veenbaas
Optimization of a FRET Assay for Evaluating the Biological Activity of Anthrax Lethal Factor Inhibitors

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Anthrax is a deadly infection caused by spores of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Part of the bacterium’s virulence is derived from the lethal toxin bipartite protein complex that disrupts MAPKK signaling pathways important for host defense against the infection. The crucial enzymatic member of lethal toxin is lethal factor, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease identified as a prime drug target for inhibitor development.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014946

Radiation Shielding Using Magnetic Fields

Matthew Sailer
Radiation Shielding Using Magnetic Fields

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Radiation shielding is essential to future missions of space exploration due to increased time of exposure to harmful radiation. One of the most damaging and dicult types of radiation to stop is High Atomic Number and Energy (HZE) particles in Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR). These particles are fully ionized and travel at near light speeds. The most dangerous of these are iron nuclei. Many shielding options have been proposed in both active and passive categories of shielding.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014940

RSA Encryption Using Polynomial Rings

Michelle Freed
RSA Encryption Using Polynomial Rings

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This paper examines some of the complexities of the public key encryption system RSA. RSA provides the necessary steps to encrypt messages using modular arithmetic. It doesn’t require separate parties to exchange keys because the encrypting key is published for anyone to use. This creates a secure system whose strength lies in the difficulty to factor the product of two large (500-600 digits) prime numbers. RSA was originally written to be used over the ring of integers.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014927

Shifting the Eyes of History: Creating Alternative Perspectives

Daria Szepkouski
Shifting the Eyes of History: Creating Alternative Perspectives

It all began with an in class writing exercise. “Today, I want you all to write an elegy for your favorite celebrity,” my professor challenged. Immediately, my mind went to big names like Eleanor Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Angelina Jolie, and Morrissey. But as I thought about what I would say for them, I felt as though my opinions would drown amidst the common feelings surrounding such individuals. Sure, I could have tried to be innovative and highlight easily overlooked aspects of these large personalities, but that just was not enough.

It all began with an in class writing exercise. “Today, I want you all to write an elegy for your favorite celebrity,” my professor challenged. Immediately, my mind went to big names like Eleanor Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Angelina Jolie, and Morrissey. But as I thought about what I would say for them, I felt as though my opinions would drown amidst the common feelings surrounding such individuals.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00018564

A Study of the Diversity and Community Structure of Fauna at Hannibal Bank Based on Imagery Data

Jonathan Abdala
A Study of the Diversity and Community Structure of Fauna at Hannibal Bank

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Hannibal Bank is a biodiversity hotspot off the Pacific coast of Panama. Using the AUV SeaBED, 12 photo-transects of the seafloor systematically captured over 21,712 images during a research cruise in 2015. A subset of the images was analyzed to characterize the benthic community by identifying and quantifying visible fauna based on morphology. In addition, the dominant substrate types within each image was also recorded.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014911

A Study of the Diversity and Distribution of Arthropods at Hannibal Bank Based on Genetic and Imagery Data

Misa Sueyoshi
A Study of the Diversity and Distribution of Arthropods at Hannibal Bank Based on Genetic and Imagery Data

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Hannibal Bank, located off the coast of Panama, is a UNESCO world heritage site known for its high levels of biodiversity. The biodiversity and distribution of arthropods were analyzed using genetic and image data collected from a research cruise in 2015. Genetic data was used to determine the number of species collected at Hannibal Bank based on DNA barcodes, and image data was used to study the distribution of arthropods and discern patterns throughout the bank. The genetic data identified that among the 99 samples collected, 39 different species and 10 families are represented.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014948

Synthesis and Computational Analysis of Novel IspF Inhibitors

Daniel Harper
Synthesis and Computational Analysis of Novel IspF Inhibitors

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A potent inhibitor of 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (IspF) has the potential to serve as a new class of antibiotic. In this project, we explored the development of such an inhibitor using a mixed experi-mental/computational approach. A promising lead was identified using chemical intuition and previously published re-search, but it failed to show significant activity toward IspF. The computational results explained this unexpected lack of inhibition. The lead compound cannot adopt the anticipated bidentate binding motif without substantial steric and angle strain.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014931

Systematic Dissection and Critical Literature Review of the Patellofemoral Joint

Eryn Danielson
Systematic Dissection and Critical Literature Review of the Patellofemoral Joint

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Patellar instability(PI) is a pathology of the patellofemoral joint(PFJ), which consists of the articulation between the patella and the distal femur. It commonly results in recurrent subluxations and dislocations throughout the patient’s lifetime. Study of predisposing factors reveals extreme anatomies effecting ligamentous, osseous, and muscular stability, which make a patella more susceptible to instability. In this literature review, the following were studied: history, epidemiology, morphology, etiology/pathogenesis, treatment, and contraindications.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014922

Targeted Cancer Therapies: Creating and Purifying a Mutated Version of Carboxypeptidase-A to Activate Capped Methotrexate for Use in Antibody-Derived Enzyme Pro-Drug Therapy (ADEPT)

Meghan Campbell
Carley Coopwood
Targeted Cancer Therapies; Creating and Purifying a Mutated Version of Carboxypeptidase-A to Activate Capped Methotrexate for Us

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Glioblastomas currently make up 45.2% of all malignant brain tumors and have an extremely poor survival rate due to lack of effective treatment options. The following study examines the possible application of ADEPT (Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy) as a treatment for glioblastomas. This method would allow for on-site activation of an inactive, masked pro-methotrexate molecule (FDA approved) by a mutated Carboxypeptidase A (mCPA) enzyme.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00014925

2016-2017 Honors Projects

Evidence-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Latino Pre-Diabetics in City Heights

Roxanne Harmon
Regan Wood
Evidence-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Latino Pre-Diabetics in City Heights

This project developed a program for Latino individuals in the City Heights area focused on preventing adult onset diabetes. A review of the literature demonstrated that multiple barriers put this population at risk. These barriers include low socioeconomic status, food culture, fatalism, low health literacy, family history of diabetes, language barriers, low food availability, lack of transportation, putting family needs over their own, and fear of the healthcare system due to immigrant status.

This project developed a program for Latino individuals in the City Heights area focused on preventing adult onset diabetes. A review of the literature demonstrated that multiple barriers put this population at risk. These barriers include low socioeconomic status, food culture, fatalism, low health literacy, family history of diabetes, language barriers, low food availability, lack of transportation, putting family needs over their own, and fear of the healthcare system due to immigrant status.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015419

Fathers, Friends, and Food: Adult Relationship Attachment Style Predicts Disordered Eating Attitudes

Liana Cho
Daniel Flint
Fathers, Friends, and Food: Adult Relationship Attachment Style Predicts Disordered Eating Attitudes

The purpose of the present study was to identify the presence of behaviors indicative of a potential eating disorder, and correlate these behaviors with both the individual’s self esteem scores and relationship attachment style patterns in a variety of close relationships.  In this study, 93 participants (65% white, 76% female) were randomly selected from university freshman small groups and surveyed using Qualtrics.

The purpose of the present study was to identify the presence of behaviors indicative of a potential eating disorder, and correlate these behaviors with both the individual’s self esteem scores and relationship attachment style patterns in a variety of close relationships. In this study, 93 participants (65% white, 76% female) were randomly selected from university freshman small groups and surveyed using Qualtrics.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015422

Integrative Literature Review for the Development of an Intimacy and Faith Course to be Implemented in Women’s Health Courses at Seventh-Day Adventist Secondary Schools

Sydney Tonack
Integrative Literature Review for the Development of an Intimacy and Faith Course to be Implemented in Women’s Health Courses at

Honors Project Abstract: There is a lacking in sufficient, comprehensive sexual health education across the United States. The United States is behind the rest of the developed world in educating adolescents about the normalcies and risks of sex. Sex and intimacy is a delicate subject in which educators, parents, and pastors often feel uncomfortable teaching; they often try and place the responsibility of sexual health education elsewhere.

There is a lacking in sufficient, comprehensive sexual health education across the United States. The United States is behind the rest of the developed world in educating adolescents about the normalcies and risks of sex. Sex and intimacy is a delicate subject in which educators, parents, and pastors often feel uncomfortable teaching; they often try and place the responsibility of sexual health education elsewhere.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00007566

Knee Meniscal Pathology and Treatments: Ramifications for Knee Articular Cartilage

Kendall Henry
Knee Meniscal Pathology and Treatments: Ramifications for Knee Articular Cartilage

Honors Project Abstract: In the United States, meniscal lesions represent the most common intra-articular knee injury. In fact, the mean annual incidence of meniscal tears is approximately 60 to 70 per 100,000 patients. Anatomically, the menisci play a major role in load bearing, load transmission of the lower extremity, shock absorption, as well as nutrition and lubrication of the articular cartilage of the tibiofemoral joint.  Common symptoms of a meniscal tear include: clicking, catching or locking, joint line tenderness,

Honors Project Abstract: In the United States, meniscal lesions represent the most common intra-articular knee injury. In fact, the mean annual incidence of meniscal tears is approximately 60 to 70 per 100,000 patients. Anatomically, the menisci play a major role in load bearing, load transmission of the lower extremity, shock absorption, as well as nutrition and lubrication of the articular cartilage of the tibiofemoral joint.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00007556

A Study of Genes Expressed in Immunoglobulin M B Cells

Christiana Crook
A Study of Genes Expressed in Immunoglobulin M B Cells

Honors Project Abstract: Bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates to possess an adaptive immune system. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one example of these bony fish, which means they have an immune system similar to that of a human (composed of both an innate and an adaptive immune system). As such, zebrafish are an excellent model for studying the evolution of the adaptive immune system. The immune system is composed of many different types of cells; one of these populations is known as B cells. B cells can further be classified into developing, mature, plasma, or memory B cells.

Bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates to possess an adaptive immune system. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one example of these bony fish, which means they have an immune system similar to that of a human (composed of both an innate and an adaptive immune system). As such, zebrafish are an excellent model for studying the evolution of the adaptive immune system. The immune system is composed of many different types of cells; one of these populations is known as B cells. B cells can further be classified into developing, mature, plasma, or memory B cells.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015052

2015-2016 Honors Projects

Determining The Window Of Rhodopsin Degradation By RPE Cells

Alan Jacques

Honors Project Abstract: Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) is a rare, late onset, degenerative eye disease whereby the photoreceptors (cones and rods) of the macula become diseased and slowly degenerate, thus reducing vision. These photoreceptors are subjected to harsh stresses, which cause them to shed the outer 10% of each cell on a nightly basis. This results in the build up of debris which another cell type, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) removes and recycles every night to reveal a fresh photoreceptor free of debris4.

Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) is a rare, late onset, degenerative eye disease whereby the photoreceptors (cones and rods) of the macula become diseased and slowly degenerate, thus reducing vision. These photoreceptors are subjected to harsh stresses, which cause them to shed the outer 10% of each cell on a nightly basis. This results in the build up of debris which another cell type, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) removes and recycles every night to reveal a fresh photoreceptor free of debris4.
English
Type: 
Research paper
WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00007570

Tabs

WHDL ID: 
WHDL-00015220
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